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[129] The searches were not exhaustive, and were primarily a response to civilian claims that the wreck site was at a certain location, with the survey ship sent to prove or disprove the claim. [149] The raider's discovery was announced by Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd on the morning of 17 March. [14] The underwater tubes were amidships, angled at 135° from the bow, and could only be fired if the raider was travelling at less than 3 knots (5.6 km/h; 3.5 mph). [43][44] 39 Chinese and four British crew were recovered by the German raider before she fled the area with British warships Norfolk and Devonshire in pursuit. [202], For sinking Sydney, Detmers' Iron Cross First Class was upgraded to the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. [222] Cole's report concluded likewise, and stated that the allegations made to 'prove' the presence of a submarine were factually wrong, lacked collaborating evidence, or otherwise did not support the claims. [109] This was initially hampered, as the sailors had been ordered to obfuscate the enemy by falsely answering all questions. [124][125] This was due to the lack of a detailed location, a problem which was compounded by supporters of alternative engagement theories, who believed that the Germans were lying and that the ships would be found further south and closer to shore. [113] Sydney spotted the German ship around the same time, and altered from her southward heading to intercept at 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph). [255] Shrapnel was embedded in the float's outer covering, while the proliferation of marine growth indicated that it had been adrift for some time. [92] The last boat, carrying 70 Germans and two Chinese, was spotted from the air at 25°4′S 112°4′E / 25.067°S 112.067°E / -25.067; 112.067 during the late morning of 27 November, and was recovered shortly after by HMAS Yandra. [58] Efforts to scuttle the tanker failed, and Kormoran had to waste another torpedo to sink the ship at 3°20′S 23°40′W / 3.333°S 23.667°W / -3.333; -23.667. The German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran (HSK-8) was a Kriegsmarine (German Navy) merchant raider of World War II.Originally the merchant vessel Steiermark, the ship was acquired by the Kriegsmarine following the outbreak of war for conversion into a raider. Their armament was obsolete (old cannons … [127][131], Following the 1999 government report into the Australian cruiser's loss, which recommended that a seminar be organised to again attempt to identify the most likely search area for the warships, the HMAS Sydney Location Seminar was organised by the RAN's Sea Power Centre and held at the Western Australian Maritime Museum. [37][38] These sailors stated their attacker had fired on the other two lifeboats, a claim not made by those rescued by the Germans. [181] Prompted by the outcome, Frame wrote HMAS Sydney: Loss and Controversy. [162] After the conclusion of ROV operations near Sydney, Geosounder travelled to the wreck of Kormoran. [100][101] Several Melbourne stations disobeyed, and were temporarily suspended from broadcasting. The Pinguin was a German auxiliary cruiser (Hilfskreuzer) which served as a commerce raider in World War II. [86] That afternoon, smoke from another ship was spotted by Kormoran. Their interviews showed similar commonalities and inconsistencies as those in Fremantle, and the interrogators concluded that the true story was being recounted. [15], On 11 November, Sydney departed Fremantle for Singapore with the transport SS Zealandia. [213] A civilian working for Australian military intelligence attempted to decode these, and after relying on interpolation and speculation to make sense of the decoded characters and fill in the gaps, came up with a message that included the phrase "a Japanese gunfire attack from Japan itself". [159], The last boat, carrying 70 Germans and two Chinese, was spotted from the air during the late morning of 27 November, and was recovered shortly afterward by HMAS Yandra. This page gives the definition of HSK as Handelsstörkreuzer, or "commerce disruption cruiser", but Detmers himself states (on page 12 of the Kimber edition of The Raider Kormoran) that it stands for Handelsschutzkreuzer, "merchant navy protection cruiser". [71] The ship remained afloat for up to four hours before the bow tore off and dropped almost vertically under the weight of the anchors and chains. "German Commerce Raider vs British Cruiser", by historian Robert Forczyk, is an entry in Osprey Publishing's Duel series. HMAS Sydney was one of three Modified Leander class light cruisers of the RAN. [14] The forecastle and quarterdeck guns were hidden behind counter-weighted false hull plates, while each centreline gun was concealed by fake cargo hatch walls. [146][147], The first life raft of German survivors, carrying 26 men, was recovered by the troopship Aquitania early on 23 November, but as the ship's master believed a raider was still in the area, he maintained wireless silence and did not report his discovery until three days later. "[178][180], In 1991, the HMAS Sydney Forum was convened by the Western Australian Museum; its goals were to seek a consensus view of the battle, and collect suggestions on how and where searches for Sydney and Kormoran should occur. [237] The higher survival rate from Kormoran was because, unlike Sydney, the raider's boats and rafts were well equipped and mostly undamaged. Originally the merchant vessel Steiermark, the ship was acquired by the navy following the outbreak of war for conversion into a raider. [74] An expected shipment of white metal for Kormoran had been supplied to a different blockade runner, which was delayed. [90] On completion, Detmers set course for the Bay of Bengal intending to lay a second mine field, but aborted this on 30 July when he learned the aircraft carrier HMS Hermes would be in the area. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for German Commerce Raider vs British Cruiser: The Atlantic & The Pacific 1941 at Amazon.com. [63] Kormoran was abandoned at midnight; the ship sank slowly until the mine hold exploded 30 minutes later. [90] Despite this, rumours about the ship's loss were circulating, fuelled by the lack of information to substantiate the "missing" telegrams. [92] During the voyage to Carnarvon, the damaged and overloaded German lifeboat was swamped: Centaur's master lowered two of his lifeboats for the Germans to use, before resuming the "motley towing combination". She sank or captured 22 ships totaling 145,968 tons. [115][116] After another delay, Kormoran raised flags reading "PKQI"—the callsign for her disguise, the Dutch merchant ship Straat Malakka — on the triatic stay and hoisted a Dutch civil ensign. While 318 of the 399 aboard the German ship were rescued and placed in prisoner of war camps for the duration of World War II, there were no survivors from the 645 aboard the Australian cruiser. [43], Later that day, lookouts aboard the raider spotted a merchant ship sailing without lights. [276] However, both ships (the raider supply ship Coburg and the captured Norwegian tanker Ketty Brovig) had commenced scuttling once Canberra started firing. [90], Centaur, which had been ordered to collect the Germans from Carnarvon and transport them to Fremantle, encountered Detmers' lifeboat at 22:20, at coordinates 24°39′S 112°15′E / 24.650°S 112.250°E / -24.650; 112.250. Kormoran ’s Commerce Raiding Operations For the next four months, Kormoran patrolled the mid-Atlantic, searching for Allied merchant vessels. [111][113], After the main interrogations were completed, the Germans were moved from Fremantle to Murchison, Victoria during late December and early January: the officers aboard the liner Duntroon, the sailors overland on two trains. [22] The 15-centimetre (5.9 in) guns were concealed behind false hull plates and cargo hatch walls, which would swing clear when the order to decamouflage was given, while the secondary weapons sat on hydraulic lifts hidden within the superstructure. [53] The raider's broken radar and a sailor with an eye injury were transferred to Scheer, but attempts to replenish the U-boat were again interrupted by bad weather, forcing the two vessels to relocate again. [14] All five were hidden by the structure of the ship until they were raised clear on hydraulic platforms. ", and while Frame was initially sceptical of the raft's origins, the evidence presented to that inquiry changed his mind. [190] Samuels cites no reliable sources and ignores or dismisses evidence supporting the accepted view as part of the cover-up; one review states that the book only brings suffering to the relatives of those killed, and is on par with the Roswell UFO incident as a conspiracy theory. Commander ) Theodor Detmers camouflage, increased speed, and was scheduled arrive... Support any of these theories 204 ], Kormoran departed German waters during December 1940, Kormoran departed German during. 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